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Senin, 28 Februari 2011

TYPES OF TEXT

NARRATIVE
Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged

RECOUNT
Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

DESCRIPTIVE
Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

REPORT
Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.
Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

EXPLANATION
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done

PROCEDURE
Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms

DISCUSSION
Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)
Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner

REVIEW
Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions

SPOOF
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged

NEWS ITEM
Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.

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Related Posts :
Abstract on Text Types

* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* Back to School Back to Learn Text Types
* Understanding Types of Text
* Classification Essay – Everything You Need to Know

Analytical Exposition

* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* The Importance of Exercise as Example of Analytical Exposition
* Fast Food in Example of Analytical Exposition
* Contoh/Example of Analytical Exposition about Being Fat
* Analytical Exposition Sample in Learning English
* Analytical Exposition Sample on Accredited School
* Example of Analytical Exposition in Jakarta Issue
* Is Smoking Good for Us?; Example of Analytical Exposition
* Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis; example of analytical exposition
* Laptop as Students’ Friend
* Career in Translation
* Writing is a Great for Money Online; an analytical exposition text
* What is Analytical Exposition?

Anecdote

* Blessing behind Tragedy; an anecdote text
* What is Anecdote?

Descriptive

* Descriptive Text about Cleopatra
* The Descriptive Facts about the Moon
* The Best Example of Descriptive Text about a Cat
* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* Contoh/Example of Descriptive Text about Taj Mahal
* Descriptive Text on Jatim Park
* Marsupial Mammal; EXAMPLE OF DESCRIPTIVE TEXT
* My Friend’s New Shoes
* The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
* Borobudur Temple; a descriptive text
* What is Descriptive Text?

Discussion

* National Exam in Pros and Cons
* Gift Cards Bring Advantages and Disadvantages
* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* Discussion Text Sample on Distance Learning
* Reading Discussion Text
* Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power
* Hunting Fox; a discussion text
* What is Discussion?

Explanation

* Explanation Text about How Rain Happens
* Explanation Text about How Cell Phones Work
* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* Seasons as Example of Explanation Text
* Contoh / Example of Explanation Text about Earthquake
* Contoh / Example of Explanation Text about Bali Island
* HOW FUEL WARNING LIGHT WORK; an example of explanation text
* Flying Kites as Example of Explanation
* CANCER; Example of Explanation Text
* Do You Know Why Eiffel Tower was Built?; Explanation Sample
* Explanation Text Sample about Roman Road
* How Chocolate is made; an Example of Explanation text
* Between Explanation and Procedure Text
* Example of Explanation Text
* How Day and Night Happen: an explanation text
* Why Summer Daylight is Longer than Winter Daylight; an explanation text
* What is Explanation?

Hortatory Exposition

* Example of Hortatory Text in Letter to Editor
* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* USE ENGLISH! Hortatory Sample
* Should not Bring Mobile Phone to School; a Hortatory Text Sample
* NEVER TRY SMOKING; a Hortatory Sample
* Hortatory Example in Wearing Helmet
* Reading Hortatory Text
* Hortatory Example in Public Awareness
* Example of Hortatory Exposition in Watching TV
* More Dust Bins is Cleaner; example of hortatory
* Where should be after High School?; a hortatory text
* Millions from Property Market; a hortatory exposition text
* Removing Lead from Petrol; a hortatory exposition text
* What is Hortatory Exposition?

Narrative

* Narrative Text in Romeo and Juliet’s Romantic and Tragic Story
* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* Example of Narrative Text in the Legend of Tangkuban Perahu
* Kite’s Tale as Example of Narrative
* Narrative Analysis on Malin Kundang Story
* Reading a Narrative
* Narrative Example in Arabian Story
* Example of Narrative Text; The Smartest Parrot
* Story of Narrative Text
* CINDERELLA STORY; the Clearest Example of Narrative Text
* Building Narrative Text with Complication
* Between Recount and Narrative
* The Smartest Animal; a narrative text
* Snow White; a narrative text
* Cinderella; a narrative text
* What is Narrative?

News Item

* News Item about Man Push Van off Train Railroad
* Understanding News Item Text
* Growing Student Smoking as Example of News Item Text
* The Clear Example of News Item Text about Landslide
* Contoh / Example of News Item Text about Indonesian Maid Tragedy
* Contoh / Example of News Item Text
* Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms; a news item text
* Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Intercourse; a news item text
* Indonesian Maid beheaded; a news item text
* What is News Item?

Procedure

* Procedure Text in Making Candles
* Contoh/Example of Procedure Text in Making Kite
* Contoh/Example of Procedure Text in Installing SIM Card
* Between Explanation and Procedure Text
* Planting Chilies; a procedure text
* Writing For Business; a procedure text
* What is Procedure?

Recount

* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* Recount Example in Journalist’s Diary
* Spoof and Recount Text; What Makes them Different?
* Vacation to London; the clear example of recount text
* Between Recount and Narrative
* Visiting Bali; a recount text
* My Horrible Experience; a recount text
* What is Recount?

Report

* Example of Report Text about Mangrove Trees
* ELEPHANTS as Example of Report Text
* Text Types in Three Main Genres
* Example of Report Text in Earthquake
* Tornadoes as Example of Report Text
* Example of Report Text about Volcano
* Contoh/Example of Report Text in Komodo
* Human Body Energy as EXAMPLE OF REPORT
* The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
* Platypus; a report text
* What is Report?

Review

* Example of Review Text in 2012 Movie
* Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses
* Business Loan Program
* Career in Translation
* Structuring the Product Review Text
* Good Translation
* a TAMM Creation
* All about Ohio Sports
* Recording Mommy Journey
* Making Money Online
* Good Young Mother
* An Attractive Motherly Blog
* A Site from Reog Boy
* Recommended Software Applications
* Guide to Japanese Pop Culture
* When She Writes
* Bad Credit Improvement
* Online Shopping Software
* Choosing Web Hosting
* Beneficial Shopping Cart

Ada 6 jenis text yang akan dijelaskan disini:

1.Recount

2.Procedure

3.Anecdote

4.Narrative

5.Report

6.Report

1.RECOUNT

Recount Tujuan komunikatif: Melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. Struktur teks: * Pendahuluan (orientasi), yaitu memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa, di mana dan kapan; * Laporan (rentetan) peristiwa, kegiatan yang terjadi, yang biasanya disampaikan secara berurut

Contoh:

Class Picnic

Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic

First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school.

We had a great day.

2.PROCEDURE

Procedure, the communicative purpose is to tell the steps of making or doing something. (Tujuan komunikatif nya: memberi petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.)

Generic Structure: Goal/Aim – Materials/Tools – Steps/Methods

Language Features of Procedure text:

Imperative form, ex: Cut, Pour, Don’t mix, dsb.

action verbs: turn, put, don’t, mix, dsb.

connectives (untuk mengurutkan kegiatan), ex: then, while, dsb.

adverbials (untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat), ex: for five minutes, two centimeters from the top, dsb.

Contoh:

SESAME DROP BISCUITS

Ingredients/Materials:

2 cups flour

1 ½ teaspoons baking powder

½ teaspoon each baking soda and salt

Butter or margarine

2 tablespoons sesame seed

1 cup buttermilk

Night Before:

In a large bowl stir together flour, baking powder, soda and salt.

2 knives or pastry blender cut in ½ cup butter until particles are fine .

Stir in sesame seed.

Next Morning:

Add buttermilk to flour mixture and stir with a fork just until mixed.

Drop by tablespoons on greased cookies sheet.

Bake in preheated 450 degrees oven until light brown. 12 to 14 minutes.

Serve at once with butter.

3.ANECDOTE

Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Anecdote
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Incident.Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense

Contoh Anecdote:

Blessing Behind Tragedy

There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America.

The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.

The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.

Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.

The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2)

Generic Structure Analysis:
Abstract: Everybody has a dream. You have and so do I. When the dream will come true, there is something wrong last minute before it. What will we feel? What will we do?

Orientation: the Clark family lived in Scotland. They had dream to travel to America. They prepared well for their plan

Crisis: few days before they went to America, his youngest son was bitten by a dog. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan.

Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry with his son and God. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it.

Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing.

4.REPORT

Report Tujuan Komunikatif: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentang rumah sederhana dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana, dsb.

Contoh:

Fax Machine

Fax, the short term for facsimile is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word teletext, short for facsimile, for “make a copy at a distance”, is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantaneous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document transferal.

5.NARRATIVE

Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca dengan pengalaman nyata atau khayal. Ciri naratif adalah adanya unsur konflik (masalah) dan resolusi (penyelesaian masalah). Jumlah masalah atau penyelesaiannya mungkin hanya satu, mungkin juga lebih. Struktur Teks: * Pengenalan latar: tokoh, waktu, dan tempat: * Pengembangan konflik; * Penyelesaian konflik; * Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh atau pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.

Contoh 1:

It was a warm day in March. I was very excited. The day had finally come. I was in the rowing team for the Olympics. I got up very early and exercised as always. Then after breakfast I drove to Drummoyne. My team arrived and at last it was time to start.

Ready, set and the starting gun went off. We began in the third position and were slowly moving closer. There they were. We could see the second boat and then we did it.

We moved past. My arms were aching. My whole body was sore but we all rowed harder.

The first boat was just in front I saw a dark shadow near the boat. I looked again. What was it? I was sure it was the shape of a cigar. ‘Oh my God’, I thought, ‘I must be seeing things. A shark in Parramata River? Impossible!’

Just then I pulled my oar out of the water. ‘Oh no, why only half?’ I thought. Then I knew. I shouted to my team, ‘Shark! Shark!’ and suddenly we forgot the race. We rowed faster than ever back to shore. We made it. Phew, we were safe!

Contoh 2:

Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large and beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.

The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping and Wee San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for Borneo in twelve sailing junks.

When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.

Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon’s cave. He noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned to it.

Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon left his cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to the mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother pulled his kite back to the ground.

The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely home. The emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons’ return.

6.DESCRIPTIVE

Tujuan Komunikatif : Struktur Teks: ciri-ciri seseorang, suatu benda atau tempat tertentu. * Pengenalan benda, orang atau sesuatu yang akan dideskripsikan. * Deskripsi: menggambarkan ciri-ciri benda tersebut,misalnya berasal dari mana, warnanya, ukurannya, kesukaannya dsb. Deskripsi ini hanya memberikan informasi mengenai benda atau orang tertentu yang sedang dibahas saja, misalnya deskripsi tentang ‘My Dog’. Ciri-ciri ‘anjing saya’ tersebut dapat berbeda dengan anjing yang lain.

What is descriptive text?

The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described.
Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.

The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
Using attributive and identifying process.
Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
Using simple present tense

Contoh 1:

Borobudur Temple

Borobudur is Hindu – Buddhist temple. It was built in the ninth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Buddhist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire edifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and stairways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.Analyzing the Text (Generic Structure Analysis):
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described in general; Borobudur temple
Description; describing the Borobudur temple in parts; eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics

Language Feature Analysis
Using adjective and classifiers; valuable
Using simple present tense; Borobudur is well-known,The temple is constructed, etc

Contoh 2:

The Ambarawa Train Museum houses 21 antique locomotives plus two more, which are stored in the depot. These locomotives are no longer produced; even the factories that made them no longer exist. The main building of this museum is the defunct Ambarawa railway station which was built in 1873. the station covers 127,500 m2.

The oldest in this museum is a locomotive made by Hartman Chemnitz. This locomotive, with a length of 8.58 m and a width of 2.45 m, began its operation in 1891. Using wood as fuel, the steam locomotive could run 50 km/h – its maximum speed.

A special part of a visit to this museum is a trip by train from the Ambarawa Train Museum to the defunct Bedono train station. This package tour is called Railway Mountain Tour. Why is the trip so special? Because the participants will board an antique train and the train will travel on a 4.9 kilometer-cog railway, which is the only one in the world.

2 komentar:

scott davidson mengatakan...

What an interesting blog, introduced by a thought-provoking photo. The unusual wall painting of the dwellings is also a strangely modern interpretation. Something like this hieroglyphic view of a park by Swiss painter Paul Klee, http://EN.WahooArt.com/A55A04/w.nsf/OPRA/BRUE-8LT475.
The image can be seen at wahooart.com who can supply you with a canvas print of it.

Iesha mengatakan...

Cool!